القطن

ترجع زراعة القطن بجمهورية مصر العربية إلى 500 عام قبل الميلاد. حالياً يتم إنتاج عدة ملايين من الأطنان عالمياً (في عام 2007/ 2008 تم إنتاج 26مليون طن من القطن من إجمالي مساحة مزروعة بلغت 33 مليون هكتار). تحتل الهند والصين الصدارة في إنتاجية القطن أما ثالث أكبر منتج (وأكبر مصدرأيضاً) فهي الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. كما يوجد عدد أخر ن الدول الكبرى المنتجة للقطن مثل باكستان- البرازيل- أوزبكستان- استراليا- تركيا- تركماستان واليونان.

التصنيف:
العائلة:
Malvaceae
جنس:
Gossypium
صنف:
G.barbadense, G. herbaceum, G. hirsutum, G arboreum and others
الأهمية الإقتصادية:
مناطق الزراعة:

Cotton planting in Sudan goes back to the 19th century when it was first grown in Eastern Sudan (Tokar). Commercial growing began in 1905 with a pilot scheme at Zeidab. Following the establishment of the Sennar dam in 1925, allowing widespread improvement in irrigation, cotton has become a leading cash crop in Sudan, supported by the establishment of large governmental schemes with the participation of farmers. After the enforcement of the Gezira Scheme Act for the year 2005 this relationship has begun to change, with a relaxation of Government control. In future, more participation is expected between between Government, Farmers and the Private Sector.

Cotton in Sudan is grown on about 100 to 200KHa, varying from year to year.

الأصناف الرئيسية:
The main commercial varieties cultivated in Sudan include: Barakat (90), Barac ( 67) Acala, Albar (57) 12, Abdin, Hamid (BB-82)
المعلومات التسويقية والإستخدام:
الإستخدام:
Textiles, Cotton oil and “cotton cake” for feed.
الأسواق:
Most cotton produced (90%) in Sudan is exported as raw material and accordingly forms an important foreign exchange earner. In 2011 175 thousand bales of cotton (480 Lbs. each) were exported. Cotton is also processed locally for weaving and spinning as well a supply for the cotton oil industry. Sudan produces 4 types of cotton namely, extra-long, long, medium & short staples. Productivity is around 0.5 tons/feddan.
إدارة المحصول:
طرق و ظروف الزراعة:
نوع التربة:
Cotton succeeds in various soil types from heavy clay to light sandy soils; it also has a good tolerance to soil salinity but it requires good drainage. The soil must be thoroughly cultivated, leaving a crumbly tilth.
درجات الحرارة:
Cotton requires a warm, dry climate (optimum temperature: 25-35°C) for its cultivation. Cotton requires a warm, dry climate (optimum temperature: 25-35°C) for its cultivation, and a frost-free period of ~200 days is essential
الإحتياجات المائية:
Cotton is planted in Sudan on both flood irrigation systems and in rain-fed areas. Long season varieties are grown for 240 days will require around 4800 m3 of water per Feddan and short season varieties grown around 180 days and will require 3600 m3 of water per Feddan. Cotton cannot withstand high humidity or heavy rain
الإحتياجات الغذائية:
Soil should be subject to soil analysis for nutrient availability. Excess nitrogen can leads to excess vegetative growth and consequently lower yield.
طرق الحصاد:
Harvesting usually starts 135 days after planting for early season varieties and 170 days after planting for late season varieties. Normally harvest takes place when 45-50% of the cotton bolls open. Sequential harvesting is then onwards done every 14 days (3 to 5 picks) until all the crop is collected.
طرق الحصاد:
Hand picking

Crop Compendium

مصدر المعرفة للمزارعين، الباحثين و الإستشاريين.

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